Montenegrin-English parallel corpus MaCoCu-cnr-en 1.0
The Montenegrin-English parallel corpus MaCoCu-cnr-en 1.0 was built by crawling the “.me” internet top-level domain in 2021 and 2022, extending the crawl dynamically to other domains as well.
All the crawling process was carried out by the MaCoCu crawler (https://github.com/macocu/MaCoCu-crawler). Websites containing documents in both target languages were identified and processed using the tool Bitextor (https://github.com/bitextor/bitextor). Considerable effort was devoted into cleaning the extracted text to provide a high-quality parallel corpus. This was achieved by removing boilerplate and near-duplicated paragraphs and documents that are not in one of the targeted languages. Document and segment alignment as implemented in Bitextor were carried out, and Bifixer (https://github.com/bitextor/bifixer) and BicleanerAI (https://github.com/bitextor/bicleaner-ai) were used for fixing, cleaning, and deduplicating the final version of the corpus.
The corpus is available in three formats: two sentence-level formats, TXT and TMX, and a document-level TXT format. In each format, the texts are separated based on the script into two files: a Latin and a Cyrillic subcorpus. TMX is an XML-based format and TXT is a tab-separated format. They both consist of pairs of source and target segments (one or several sentences) and additional metadata. The following metadata is included in both sentence-level formats:
- source and target document URL;
- paragraph ID which includes information on the position of the sentence in the paragraph and in the document (e.g., “p35:77s1/3” which means “paragraph 35 out of 77, sentence 1 out of 3”);
- quality score as provided by the tool Bicleaner AI (a likelihood of a pair of sentences being mutual translations, provided with a score between 0 and 1);
- similarity score as provided by the sentence alignment tool Bleualign (value between 0 and 1);
- personal information identification (“biroamer-entities-detected”): segments containing personal information are flagged, so final users of the corpus can decide whether to use these segments;
- translation direction and machine translation identification (“translation-direction”): the source segment in each segment pair was identified by using a probabilistic model (https://github.com/RikVN/TranslationDirection), which also determines if the translation has been produced by a machine-translation system;
- a DSI class (“dsi”): information whether the segment is connected to any of Digital Service Infrastructure (DSI) classes (e.g., cybersecurity, e-health, e-justice, open-data-portal), defined by the Connecting Europe Facility (https://github.com/RikVN/DSI);
- English language variant: the language variant of English (British or American, using a lexicon-based English variety classifier - https://pypi.org/project/abclf/) was identified on document and domain level.
Furthermore, the sentence-level TXT format provides additional metadata:
- web domain of the text;
- source and target document title;
- the date when the original file was retrieved;
- the original type of the file (e.g., “html”), from which the sentence was extracted;
- paragraph quality (labels, such as “short” or “good”, assigned based on paragraph length, URL and stopword density via the jusText tool - https://corpus.tools/wiki/Justext);
- information whether the sentence is a heading or not in the original document.
The document-level TXT format provides pairs of documents identified to contain parallel data. In addition to the parallel documents (in base64 format), the corpus includes the following metadata: source and target document URL, a DSI category and the English language variant (British or American).
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This action has received funding from the European Union's Connecting Europe Facility 2014-2020 - CEF Telecom, under Grant Agreement No. INEA/CEF/ICT/A2020/2278341. This communication reflects only the author’s view. The Agency is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
DSI Relevance: BusinessRegistersInterconnectionSystem, Cybersecurity, ElectronicExchangeOfSocialSecurityInformation, Europeana, OnlineDisputeResolution, OpenDataPortal, eHealth, eJustice, eProcurement, saferInternet
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